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They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York, but they did not push westward. Areas in the north that were in the frontier stage by generally had poor transportation facilities, so the opportunity for commercial agriculture was low.
These areas remained primarily in subsistence agriculture, and as a result, by the s these societies were highly egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main:.
The typical frontier society, therefore, was one in which class distinctions were minimized. The wealthy speculator, if one was involved, usually remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident.
The class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were also poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day make them prosperous.
Few artisans settled on the frontier except for those who practiced a trade to supplement their primary occupation of farming.
There might be a storekeeper, a minister, and perhaps a doctor; and there were several landless laborers. All the rest were farmers.
In the South, frontier areas that lacked transportation, such as the Appalachian Mountain region, remained based on subsistence farming and resembled the egalitarianism of their northern counterparts, although they had a larger upper-class of slaveowners.
North Carolina was representative. However, frontier areas of that had good river connections were increasingly transformed into plantation agriculture.
Rich men came in, bought up the good land, and worked it with slaves. The area was no longer "frontier".
It had a stratified society comprising a powerful upper-class white landowning gentry, a small middle-class, a fairly large group of landless or tenant white farmers, and a growing slave population at the bottom of the social pyramid.
Unlike the North, where small towns and even cities were common, the South was overwhelmingly rural. The seaboard colonial settlements gave priority to land ownership for individual farmers, and as the population grew they pushed westward for fresh farmland.
Land ownership brought a degree of independence as well as a vote for local and provincial offices.
The typical New England settlements were quite compact and small, under a square mile. Conflict with the Native Americans arose out of political issues, namely who would rule.
Most of the frontiers experienced Native wars. The series of large wars spilling over from European wars ended in a complete victory for the British in the worldwide Seven Years' War.
In the peace treaty of , France lost practically everything, as the lands west of the Mississippi River, in addition to Florida and New Orleans, went to Spain.
Otherwise, lands east of the Mississippi River and what is now Canada went to Britain. Regardless of wars Americans were moving across the Appalachians into western Pennsylvania, what is now West Virginia, and areas of the Ohio Country , Kentucky, and Tennessee.
In the southern settlements via the Cumberland Gap , their most famous leader was Daniel Boone ,  Young George Washington promoted settlements in West Virginia on lands awarded to him and his soldiers by the Royal government in payment for their wartime service in Virginia's militia.
Settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains were curtailed briefly by the Royal Proclamation of , forbidding settlement in this area.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix re-opened most of the western lands for frontiersmen to settle. The nation was at peace after The states gave Congress control of the western lands and an effective system for population expansion was developed.
The Northwest Ordinance of abolished slavery in the area north of the Ohio River and promised statehood when a territory reached a threshold population, as Ohio did in The first major movement west of the Appalachian mountains originated in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina as soon as the Revolutionary War ended in Pioneers housed themselves in a rough lean-to or at most a one-room log cabin.
The main food supply at first came from hunting deer, turkeys, and other abundant game. Clad in typical frontier garb, leather breeches, moccasins, fur cap, and hunting shirt, and girded by a belt from which hung a hunting knife and a shot pouch—all homemade—the pioneer presented a unique appearance.
In a short time he opened in the woods a patch, or clearing, on which he grew corn, wheat, flax, tobacco, and other products, even fruit. In a few years, the pioneer added hogs, sheep, and cattle, and perhaps acquired a horse.
Homespun clothing replaced the animal skins. The land policy of the new nation was conservative, paying special attention to the needs of the settled East.
By the s, however, the West was filling up with squatters who had no legal deed, although they may have paid money to previous settlers.
The Jacksonian Democrats favored the squatters by promising rapid access to cheap land. By contrast, Henry Clay was alarmed at the "lawless rabble" heading West who were undermining the utopian concept of a law-abiding, stable middle-class republican community.
Rich southerners, meanwhile, looked for opportunities to buy high-quality land to set up slave plantations. After winning the Revolutionary War , American settlers in large numbers poured into the west.
In , American pioneers to the Northwest Territory established Marietta, Ohio , as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory.
In , Daniel Boone blazed a trail for the Transylvania Company from Virginia through the Cumberland Gap into central Kentucky. It was later lengthened to reach the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville.
The Wilderness Road was steep and rough, and it could only be traversed on foot or horseback, but it was the best route for thousands of settlers moving into Kentucky.
In alone, Indians killed over travelers on the Wilderness Road. Kentucky at this time had been depopulated—it was "empty of Indian villages.
One of those intercepted was Abraham Lincoln 's grandfather, who was scalped in near Louisville. The War of marked the final confrontation involving major British and Indian forces fighting to stop American expansion.
The British war goal included the creation of an Indian barrier state under British auspices in the Midwest which would halt American expansion westward.
American frontier militiamen under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks and opened the Southwest, while militia under Governor William Henry Harrison defeated the Indian-British alliance at the Battle of the Thames in Canada in The death in battle of the Indian leader Tecumseh dissolved the coalition of hostile Indian tribes.
In general, the frontiersmen battled the Indians with little help from the U. Army or the federal government.
To end the war, American diplomats negotiated the Treaty of Ghent , signed towards the end of , with Britain. They rejected the British plan to set up an Indian state in U.
They explained the American policy toward the acquisition of Indian lands:. The United States, while intending never to acquire lands from the Indians otherwise than peaceably, and with their free consent, are fully determined, in that manner, progressively, and in proportion as their growing population may require, to reclaim from the state of nature, and to bring into cultivation every portion of the territory contained within their acknowledged boundaries.
In thus providing for the support of millions of civilized beings, they will not violate any dictate of justice or humanity; for they will not only give to the few thousand savages scattered over that territory an ample equivalent for any right they may surrender, but will always leave them the possession of lands more than they can cultivate, and more than adequate to their subsistence, comfort, and enjoyment, by cultivation.
If this is a spirit of aggrandizement, the undersigned are prepared to admit, in that sense, its existence; but they must deny that it affords the slightest proof of an intention not to respect the boundaries between them and European nations, or of a desire to encroach upon the territories of Great Britain.
As settlers poured in, the frontier districts first became territories, with an elected legislature and a governor appointed by the president.
Then when the population reached , the territory applied for statehood. In the western frontier had reached the Mississippi River.
Louis, Missouri , was the largest town on the frontier, the gateway for travel westward, and a principal trading center for Mississippi River traffic and inland commerce but remained under Spanish control until Thomas Jefferson thought of himself as a man of the frontier and was keenly interested in expanding and exploring the West.
France was paid for its sovereignty over the territory in terms of international law. Between and the s, the federal government purchased the actual land from the Indian tribes then in possession of it.
Additional sums were paid to the Indians living east of the Mississippi for their lands, as well as payments to Indians living in parts of the west outside the Louisiana Purchase.
Even before the purchase, Jefferson was planning expeditions to explore and map the lands. He charged Lewis and Clark to "explore the Missouri River, and such principal stream of it, as, by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean; whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado, or any other river may offer the most direct and practicable communication across the continent for commerce".
Entrepreneurs, most notably John Jacob Astor quickly seized the opportunity and expanded fur trading operations into the Pacific Northwest.
Astor's " Fort Astoria " later Fort George , at the mouth of the Columbia River, became the first permanent white settlement in that area, although it was not profitable for Astor.
He set up the American Fur Company in an attempt to break the hold that the Hudson's Bay Company monopoly had over the region. By , Astor had taken over independent traders to create a profitable monopoly; he left the business as a multi-millionaire in As the frontier moved west, trappers and hunters moved ahead of settlers, searching out new supplies of beaver and other skins for shipment to Europe.
The hunters were the first Europeans in much of the Old West and they formed the first working relationships with the Native Americans in the West.
Discovered about , it later became a major route for settlers to Oregon and Washington. By , however, a new "brigade-rendezvous" system sent company men in "brigades" cross-country on long expeditions, bypassing many tribes.
It also encouraged "free trappers" to explore new regions on their own. At the end of the gathering season, the trappers would "rendezvous" and turn in their goods for pay at river ports along the Green River , Upper Missouri, and the Upper Mississippi.
Louis was the largest of the rendezvous towns. By , however, fashions changed and beaver hats were replaced by silk hats, ending the demand for expensive American furs.
Thus ended the era of the mountain men , trappers, and scouts such as Jedediah Smith , Hugh Glass , Davy Crockett , Jack Omohundro , and others.
The trade-in beaver fur virtually ceased by There was wide agreement on the need to settle the new territories quickly, but the debate polarized over the price the government should charge.
The conservatives and Whigs, typified by the president John Quincy Adams , wanted a moderated pace that charged the newcomers enough to pay the costs of the federal government.
The Democrats, however, tolerated a wild scramble for land at very low prices. The final resolution came in the Homestead Law of , with a moderated pace that gave settlers acres free after they worked on it for five years.
The private profit motive dominated the movement westward,  but the Federal Government played a supporting role in securing the land through treaties and setting up territorial governments, with governors appointed by the President.
The federal government first acquired western territory through treaties with other nations or native tribes. Then it sent surveyors to map and document the land.
Transportation was a key issue and the Army especially the Army Corps of Engineers was given full responsibility for facilitating navigation on the rivers.
The steamboat, first used on the Ohio River in , made possible inexpensive travel using the river systems, especially the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their tributaries.
For example, the Army's steamboat "Western Engineer" of combined a very shallow draft with one of the earliest stern wheels.
In —25, Colonel Henry Atkinson developed keelboats with hand-powered paddle wheels. The federal postal system played a crucial role in national expansion.
It facilitated expansion into the West by creating an inexpensive, fast, convenient communication system. Letters from early settlers provided information and boosterism to encourage increased migration to the West, helped scattered families stay in touch and provide neutral help, assisted entrepreneurs to find business opportunities, and made possible regular commercial relationships between merchants and the West and wholesalers and factories back east.
The postal service likewise assisted the Army in expanding control over the vast western territories. The widespread circulation of important newspapers by mail, such as the New York Weekly Tribune , facilitated coordination among politicians in different states.
The postal service helped to integrate already established areas with the frontier, creating a spirit of nationalism and providing a necessary infrastructure.
The army early on assumed the mission of protecting settlers along with the Westward Expansion Trails , a policy that was described by Secretary of War John B.
Floyd in . There was a debate at the time about the best size for the forts with Jefferson Davis , Winfield Scott , and Thomas Jesup supporting forts that were larger but fewer in number than Floyd.
Floyd's plan was more expensive but had the support of settlers and the general public who preferred that the military remain as close as possible.
The frontier area was vast and even Davis conceded that "concentration would have exposed portions of the frontier to Indian hostilities without any protection.
Government and private enterprise sent many explorers to the West. In —, Army lieutenant Zebulon Pike — led a party of 20 soldiers to find the headwaters of the Mississippi.
He later explored the Red and Arkansas Rivers in Spanish territory, eventually reaching the Rio Grande.
On his return, Pike sighted the peak in Colorado named after him. In , naturalists Thomas Nuttall — and John Bradbury — traveled up the Missouri River documenting and drawing plant and animal life.
Swiss artist Karl Bodmer made compelling landscapes and portraits. He displayed a talent for exploration and a genius at self-promotion that gave him the sobriquet of "Pathmarker of the West" and led him to the presidential nomination of the new Republican Party in He crossed through the Rocky Mountains by five different routes and mapped parts of Oregon and California.
In —, he played a role in conquering California. It caught the public imagination and inspired many to head west. Goetzman says it was "monumental in its breadth, a classic of exploring literature".
While colleges were springing up across the Northeast, there was little competition on the western frontier for Transylvania University , founded in Lexington, Kentucky, in It boasted of a law school in addition to its undergraduate and medical programs.
Transylvania attracted politically ambitious young men from across the Southwest, including 50 who became United States senators, representatives, 36 governors, and 34 ambassadors, as well as Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy.
The established Eastern churches were slow to meet the needs of the frontier. The Presbyterians and Congregationalists, since they depended on well-educated ministers, were shorthanded in evangelizing the frontier.
They set up a Plan of Union of to combine resources on the frontier. The local pioneers responded enthusiastically to these events and, in effect, evolved their populist religions, especially during the Second Great Awakening — , which featured outdoor camp meetings lasting a week or more and which introduced many people to organized religion for the first time.
One of the largest and most famous camp meetings took place at Cane Ridge, Kentucky , in The local Baptists set up small independent churches—Baptists abjured centralized authority; each local church was founded on the principle of independence of the local congregation.
On the other hand, bishops of the well-organized, centralized Methodists assigned circuit riders to specific areas for several years at a time, then moved them to fresh territory.
Several new denominations were formed, of which the largest was the Disciples of Christ. Historian Mark Wyman calls Wisconsin a "palimpsest" of layer upon layer of peoples and forces, each imprinting permanent influences.
He identified these layers as multiple "frontiers" over three centuries: Native American frontier, French frontier, English frontier, fur-trade frontier, mining frontier, and the logging frontier.
Finally, the coming of the railroad brought the end of the frontier. Frederick Jackson Turner grew up in Wisconsin during its last frontier stage, and in his travels around the state, he could see the layers of social and political development.
One of Turner's last students, Merle Curti used an in-depth analysis of local Wisconsin history to test Turner's thesis about democracy.
Turner's view was that American democracy, "involved widespread participation in the making of decisions affecting the common life, the development of initiative and self-reliance, and equality of economic and cultural opportunity.
It thus also involved Americanization of immigrant. He found that even landless young farmworkers were soon able to obtain their farms.
Free land on the frontier, therefore, created opportunity and democracy, for both European immigrants as well as old stock Yankees.
From the s to the s, pioneers moved into the new lands that stretched from Kentucky to Alabama to Texas. Most were farmers who moved in family groups.
Historian Louis Hacker shows how wasteful the first generation of pioneers was; they were too ignorant to cultivate the land properly and when the natural fertility of virgin land was used up, they sold out and moved west to try again.
Hacker describes that in Kentucky about Farms were for sale with from ten to fifty acres cleared, possessing log houses, peach and sometimes apple orchards, enclosed in fences, and having plenty of standing timber for fuel.
The land was sown in wheat and corn, which were the staples, while hemp [for making rope] was being cultivated in increasing quantities in the fertile river bottoms Yet, on the whole, it was an agricultural society without skill or resources.
It committed all those sins which characterize wasteful and ignorant husbandry. Grass seed was not sown for hay and as a result, the farm animals had to forage for themselves in the forests; the fields were not permitted to lie in pasturage; a single crop was planted in the soil until the land was exhausted; the manure was not returned to the fields; only a small part of the farm was brought under cultivation, the rest being permitted to stand in timber.
Instruments of cultivation were rude and clumsy and only too few, many of them being made on the farm. It is plain why the American frontier settler was on the move continually.
It was, not his fear of too close contact with the comforts and restraints of a civilized society that stirred him into a ceaseless activity, nor merely the chance of selling out at a profit to the coming wave of settlers; it was his wasting land that drove him on.
Hunger was the goad. The pioneer farmer's ignorance, his inadequate facilities for cultivation, his limited means, of transport necessitated his frequent changes of scene.
He could succeed only with virgin soil. Hacker adds that the second wave of settlers reclaimed the land, repaired the damage, and practiced more sustainable agriculture.
Historian Frederick Jackson Turner explored the individualistic worldview and values of the first generation:.
What they objected to was arbitrary obstacles, artificial limitations upon the freedom of each member of this frontier folk to work out his career without fear or favor.
What they instinctively opposed was the crystallization of differences, the monopolization of opportunity, and the fixing of that monopoly by government or by social customs.
The road must be open. The game must be played according to the rules. There must be no artificial stifling of equality of opportunity, no closed doors to the able, no stopping the free game before it was played to the end.
Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was preordained to expand from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast. The concept was expressed during Colonial times, but the term was coined in the s by a popular magazine which editorialized, "the fulfillment of our manifest destiny In the s the Tyler and Polk administrations —49 successfully promoted this nationalistic doctrine.
However, the Whig Party , which represented business and financial interests, stood opposed to Manifest Destiny.
Whig leaders such as Henry Clay and Abraham Lincoln called for deepening the society through modernization and urbanization instead of simple horizontal- expansion.
John Quincy Adams , an anti-slavery Whig, felt the Texas annexation in to be "the heaviest calamity that ever befell myself and my country".
Mexico became independent of Spain in and took over Spain's northern possessions stretching from Texas to California.
Santa Fe was also the trailhead for the "El Camino Real" the King's Highway , a trade route which carried American manufactured goods southward deep into Mexico and returned silver, furs, and mules northward not to be confused with another "Camino Real" which connected the missions in California.
A branch also ran eastward near the Gulf also called the Old San Antonio Road. Santa Fe connected to California via the Old Spanish Trail.
The Spanish and Mexican governments attracted American settlers to Texas with generous terms. Stephen F. Austin became an "empresario", receiving contracts from the Mexican officials to bring in immigrants.
In doing so, he also became the de facto political and military commander of the area. Tensions rose, however, after an abortive attempt to establish the independent nation of Fredonia in William Travis , leading the "war party", advocated for independence from Mexico, while the "peace party" led by Austin attempted to get more autonomy within the current relationship.
When Mexican president Santa Anna shifted alliances and joined the conservative Centralist party, he declared himself dictator and ordered soldiers into Texas to curtail new immigration and unrest.
However, immigration continued and 30, Anglos with 3, slaves were settled in Texas by Following losses at the Alamo and Goliad , the Texians won the decisive Battle of San Jacinto to secure independence.
At San Jacinto, Sam Houston , commander-in-chief of the Texian Army and future President of the Republic of Texas famously shouted "Remember the Alamo!
Remember Goliad". The U. Congress declined to annex Texas, stalemated by contentious arguments over slavery and regional power.
Thus, the Republic of Texas remained an independent power for nearly a decade before it was annexed as the 28th state in The government of Mexico, however, viewed Texas as a runaway province and asserted its ownership.
Mexico refused to recognize the independence of Texas in , but the U. Mexico threatened war if Texas joined the U. American negotiators were turned away by a Mexican government in turmoil.
When the Mexican army killed 16 American soldiers in disputed territory war was at hand. Whigs , such as Congressman Abraham Lincoln denounced the war, but it was quite popular outside New England.
The Mexican strategy was defensive; the American strategy was a three-pronged offensive, using large numbers of volunteer soldiers.
From the main American base at New Orleans, General Zachary Taylor led forces into northern Mexico, winning a series of battles that ensued.
Navy transported General Winfield Scott to Veracruz. He then marched his 12,man force west to Mexico City, winning the final battle at Chapultepec.
Talk of acquiring all of Mexico fell away when the army discovered the Mexican political and cultural values were so alien to America's.
As the Cincinnati Herald asked, what would the U. The Gadsden Purchase in added southern Arizona, which was needed for a railroad route to California.
In all Mexico ceded half a million square miles 1. Managing the new territories and dealing with the slavery issue caused intense controversy, particularly over the Wilmot Proviso , which would have outlawed slavery in the new territories.
Congress never passed it, but rather temporarily resolved the issue of slavery in the West with the Compromise of California entered the Union in as a free state; the other areas remained territories for many years.
The new state grew rapidly as migrants poured into the fertile cotton lands of east Texas. The central area of the state was developed more by subsistence farmers who seldom owned slaves.
Texas in its Wild West days attracted men who could shoot straight and possessed the zest for adventure, "for masculine renown, patriotic service, martial glory, and meaningful deaths".
In about 10, Californios Hispanics lived in California, primarily on cattle ranches in what is now the Los Angeles area.
A few hundred foreigners were scattered in the northern districts, including some Americans. With the outbreak of war with Mexico in the U.
Army unit, as well as naval forces, and quickly took control. Thousands of "Forty-Niners" reached California, by sailing around South America or taking a short-cut through disease-ridden Panama , or walked the California trail.
The population soared to over , in , mostly in the gold districts that stretched into the mountains east of San Francisco. Housing in San Francisco was at a premium, and abandoned ships whose crews had headed for the mines were often converted to temporary lodging.
In the goldfields themselves, living conditions were primitive, though the mild climate proved attractive. Supplies were expensive and food poor, typical diets consisting mostly of pork, beans, and whiskey.
These highly male, transient communities with no established institutions were prone to high levels of violence, drunkenness, profanity, and greed-driven behavior.
Without courts or law officers in the mining communities to enforce claims and justice, miners developed their ad hoc legal system, based on the "mining codes" used in other mining communities abroad.
Each camp had its own rules and often handed out justice by popular vote, sometimes acting fairly and at times exercising vigilantes; with Indians, Mexicans, and Chinese generally receiving the harshest sentences.
The gold rush radically changed the California economy and brought in an array of professionals, including precious metal specialists, merchants, doctors, and attorneys, who added to the population of miners, saloon keepers, gamblers, and prostitutes.
A San Francisco newspaper stated, "The whole country Violent bandits often preyed upon the miners, such as the case of Jonathan R.
Davis ' killing of eleven bandits single-handedly. In a few years, nearly all of the independent miners were displaced as mines were purchased and run by mining companies, who then hired low-paid salaried miners.
As gold became harder to find and more difficult to extract, individual prospectors gave way to paid work gangs, specialized skills, and mining machinery.
Bigger mines, however, caused greater environmental damage. In the mountains, shaft mining predominated, producing large amounts of waste.
Beginning in , at the end of the '49 gold rush, through , hydraulic mining was used. Despite huge profits being made, it fell into the hands of a few capitalists, displaced numerous miners, vast amounts of waste entered river systems, and did heavy ecological damage to the environment.
Hydraulic mining ended when the public outcry over the destruction of farmlands led to the outlawing of this practice.
The mountainous areas of the triangle from New Mexico to California to South Dakota contained hundreds of hard rock mining sites, where prospectors discovered gold, silver, copper and other minerals as well as some soft-rock coal.
Temporary mining camps sprang up overnight; most became ghost towns when the ores were depleted. Prospectors spread out and hunted for gold and silver along the Rockies and in the southwest.
Soon gold was discovered in Colorado , Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, Montana, and South Dakota by The discovery of the Comstock Lode , containing vast amounts of silver, resulted in the Nevada boomtowns of Virginia City , Carson City , and Silver City.
The wealth from silver, more than from gold, fueled the maturation of San Francisco in the s and helped the rise of some of its wealthiest families, such as that of George Hearst.
They moved in large groups under an experienced wagonmaster, bringing their clothing, farm supplies, weapons, and animals.
These wagon trains followed major rivers, crossed prairies and mountains, and typically ended in Oregon and California.
Pioneers generally attempted to complete the journey during a single warm season, usually for six months. By , when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri , a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho.
Trails were cleared further and further west, eventually reaching the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
This network of wagon trails leading to the Pacific Northwest was later called the Oregon Trail.
The eastern half of the route was also used by travelers on the California Trail from , Mormon Trail from , and Bozeman Trail from before they turned off to their separate destinations.
In the "Wagon Train of ", some to 1, emigrants headed for Oregon; missionary Marcus Whitman led the wagons on the last leg. Some did so because they were discouraged and defeated.
Some returned with bags of gold and silver. Most were returning to pick up their families and move them all back west. These "gobacks" were a major source of information and excitement about the wonders and promises—and dangers and disappointments—of the far West.
Not all emigrants made it to their destination. The dangers of the overland route were numerous: snakebites, wagon accidents, violence from other travelers, suicide, malnutrition, stampedes, Indian attacks, a variety of diseases dysentery , typhoid , and cholera were among the most common , exposure, avalanches, etc.
One particularly well-known example of the treacherous nature of the journey is the story of the ill-fated Donner Party , which became trapped in the Sierra Nevada mountains during the winter of — in which nearly half of the 90 people traveling with the group died from starvation and exposure, and some resorted to cannibalism to survive.
There were also frequent attacks from bandits and highwaymen , such as the infamous Harpe brothers who patrolled the frontier routes and targeted migrant groups.
In Missouri and Illinois, animosity between the Mormon settlers and locals grew, which would mirror those in other states such as Utah years later.
Violence finally erupted on October 24, , when militias from both sides clashed and a mass killing of Mormons in Livingston County occurred 6 days later.
A hundred rural Mormon settlements sprang up in what Young called " Deseret ", which he ruled as a theocracy. It later became Utah Territory.
Young's Salt Lake City settlement served as the hub of their network, which reached into neighboring territories as well.
The communalism and advanced farming practices of the Mormons enabled them to succeed. Following the end of the Mexican-American War in , Utah was ceded to the United States by Mexico.
Though the Mormons in Utah had supported U. Founded in , the Republican Party was openly hostile towards The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints LDS Church in Utah over the practice of polygamy, viewed by most of the American public as an affront to religious, cultural, and moral values of modern civilization.
Confrontations verged on open warfare in the late s as President Buchanan sent in troops. Although there were no military battles fought, and negotiations led to a stand down, violence still escalated and there were several casualties.
During this time, Congress refused to admit Utah into the Union as a state and statehood would mean an end to direct federal control over the territory and the possible ascension of politicians chosen and controlled by the LDS Church into most if not all federal, state and local elected offices from the new state.
Finally, in , the church leadership announced polygamy was no longer a central tenet, thereafter a compromise. In , Utah was admitted as the 45th state with the Mormons dividing between Republicans and Democrats.
The federal government provided subsidies for the development of mail and freight delivery, and by , Congress authorized road improvements and an overland mail service to California.
The new commercial wagon trains service primarily hauled freight. In John Butterfield —69 established a stage service that went from Saint Louis to San Francisco in 24 days along a southern route.
William Russell, hoping to get a government contract for more rapid mail delivery service, started the Pony Express in , cutting delivery time to ten days.
In Congress passed the Land-Grant Telegraph Act which financed the construction of Western Union's transcontinental telegraph lines.
Hiram Sibley , Western Union's head, negotiated exclusive agreements with railroads to run telegraph lines along their right-of-way.
Eight years before the transcontinental railroad opened, the First Transcontinental Telegraph linked Omaha, Nebraska, to San Francisco on October 24, Constitutionally, Congress could not deal with slavery in the states but it did have jurisdiction in the western territories.
California unanimously rejected slavery in and became a free state. New Mexico allowed slavery, but it was rarely seen there.
Kansas was off-limits to slavery by the Compromise of Free Soil elements feared that if slavery were allowed rich planters would buy up the best lands and work them with gangs of slaves, leaving little opportunity for free white men to own farms.
Few Southern planters were interested in Kansas, but the idea that slavery was illegal there implied they had a second-class status that was intolerable to their sense of honor, and seemed to violate the principle of state's rights.
With the passage of the extremely controversial Kansas—Nebraska Act in , Congress left the decision up to the voters on the ground in Kansas.
Across the North, a new major party was formed to fight slavery: the Republican Party , with numerous westerners in leadership positions, most notably Abraham Lincoln of Illinois.
To influence the territorial decision, anti-slavery elements also called "Jayhawkers" or "Free-soilers" financed the migration of politically determined settlers.
But pro-slavery advocates fought back with pro-slavery settlers from Missouri. The antislavery forces took over by , as Kansas became a free state.
The episode demonstrated that a democratic compromise between North and South over slavery was impossible and served to hasten the Civil War.
Despite its large territory, the trans-Mississippi West had a small population and its wartime story has to a large extent been underplayed in the historiography of the American Civil War.
The Confederacy engaged in several important campaigns in the West. However, Kansas, a major area of conflict building up to the war, was the scene of only one battle, at Mine Creek.
But its proximity to Confederate lines enabled pro-Confederate guerrillas, such as Quantrill's Raiders , to attack Union strongholds and massacre the residents.
In Texas, citizens voted to join the Confederacy; anti-war Germans were hanged. Confederate Arizona was created by Arizona citizens who wanted protection against Apache raids after the United States Army units were moved out.
The Confederacy then sets its sight to gain control of the New Mexico Territory. General Henry Hopkins Sibley was tasked for the campaign, and together with his New Mexico Army , marched right up the Rio Grande in an attempt to take the mineral wealth of Colorado as well as California.
The First Regiment of Volunteers discovered the rebels, and they immediately warned and joined the Yankees at Fort Union. The Battle of Glorieta Pass soon erupted, and the Union ended the Confederate campaign and the area west of Texas remained in Union hands.
Missouri , a Union state where slavery was legal, became a battleground when the pro-secession governor, against the vote of the legislature, led troops to the federal arsenal at St.
Louis ; he was aided by Confederate forces from Arkansas and Louisiana. However, Union General Samuel Curtis regained St.
Louis and all of Missouri for the Union. The state was the scene of numerous raids and guerrilla warfare in the west. Army after established a series of military posts across the frontier, designed to stop warfare among Indian tribes or between Indians and settlers.
Throughout the 19th century, Army officers typically served built their careers in peacekeeper roles moving from fort to fort until retirement.
Actual combat experience was uncommon for any one soldier. The most dramatic conflict was the Sioux war in Minnesota in when Dakota tribes systematically attacked German farms to drive out the settlers.
For several days, Dakota attacks at the Lower Sioux Agency , New Ulm and Hutchinson , slaughtered to white settlers.
The state militia fought back and Lincoln sent in federal troops. The ensuing battles at Fort Ridgely , Birch Coulee , Fort Abercrombie , and Wood Lake punctuated a six-week war, which ended in an American victory.
The federal government tried Indians for murder, and were convicted and sentenced to death. Lincoln pardoned the majority, but 38 leaders were hanged.
The decreased presence of Union troops in the West left behind untrained militias; hostile tribes used the opportunity to attack settlers.
The militia struck back hard, most notably by attacking the winter quarters of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians, filled with women and children, at the Sand Creek massacre in eastern Colorado in late Kit Carson and the U.
Army in trapped the entire Navajo tribe in New Mexico, where they had been raiding settlers and put them on a reservation.
In , Congress enacted two major laws to facilitate settlement of the West: the Homestead Act and the Pacific Railroad Act. The result by was millions of new farms in the Plains states, many operated by new immigrants from Germany and Scandinavia.
With the war over and slavery abolished, the federal government focused on improving the governance of the territories. It subdivided several territories, preparing them for statehood, following the precedents set by the Northwest Ordinance of It standardized procedures and the supervision of territorial governments, taking away some local powers, and imposing much "red tape", growing the federal bureaucracy significantly.
Federal involvement in the territories was considerable. In addition to direct subsidies, the federal government maintained military posts, provided safety from Indian attacks, bankrolled treaty obligations, conducted surveys and land sales, built roads, staffed land offices, made harbor improvements, and subsidized overland mail delivery.
Territorial citizens came to both decry federal power and local corruption, and at the same time, lament that more federal dollars were not sent their way.
Territorial governors were political appointees and beholden to Washington so they usually governed with a light hand, allowing the legislatures to deal with the local issues.
In addition to his role as civil governor, a territorial governor was also a militia commander, a local superintendent of Indian affairs, and the state liaison with federal agencies.
The legislatures, on the other hand, spoke for the local citizens and they were given considerable leeway by the federal government to make local law.
These improvements to governance still left plenty of room for profiteering. As Mark Twain wrote while working for his brother, the secretary of Nevada, "The government of my country snubs honest simplicity but fondles artistic villainy, and I think I might have developed into a very capable pickpocket if I had remained in the public service a year or two.
In acquiring, preparing, and distributing public land to private ownership, the federal government generally followed the system set forth by the Land Ordinance of Federal exploration and scientific teams would undertake reconnaissance of the land and determine Native American habitation.
Through treaties, the land titles would be ceded by the resident tribes. Townships would be formed from the lots and sold at public auction.
As part of public policy, the government would award public land to certain groups such as veterans, through the use of "land script".
As a counter to land speculators, farmers formed "claims clubs" to enable them to buy larger tracts than the acre 0. In , Congress passed three important bills that transformed the land system.
The Homestead Act granted acres 0. The only cost was a modest filing fee. The law was especially important in the settling of the Plains states.
Many took a free homestead and others purchased their land from railroads at low rates. The Pacific Railroad Act of provided for the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
The land was given the railroads alternated with government-owned tracts saved for free distribution to homesteaders. Railroads had up to five years to sell or mortgage their land, after tracks were laid, after which unsold land could be purchased by anyone.
Often railroads sold some of their government acquired land to homesteaders immediately to encourage settlement and the growth of markets the railroads would then be able to serve.
Nebraska railroads in the s were strong boosters of lands along their routes. They sent agents to Germany and Scandinavia with package deals that included cheap transportation for the family as well as its furniture and farm tools, and they offered long-term credit at low rates.
Boosterism succeeded in attracting adventurous American and European families to Nebraska , helping them purchase land grant parcels on good terms.
The selling price depended on such factors as soil quality, water, and distance from the railroad. The Morrill Act of provided land grants to states to begin colleges of agriculture and mechanical arts engineering.
Black colleges became eligible for these land grants in The Act succeeded in its goals to open new universities and make farming more scientific and profitable.
In the s government-sponsored surveys to chart the remaining unexplored regions of the West, and to plan possible routes for a transcontinental railroad.
Much of this work was undertaken by the Corps of Engineers , Corps of Topographical Engineers , and Bureau of Explorations and Surveys, and became known as "The Great Reconnaissance".
Regionalism animated debates in Congress regarding the choice of a northern, central, or southern route. Engineering requirements for the rail route were an adequate supply of water and wood, and as nearly-level route as possible, given the weak locomotives of the era.
In the s, proposals to build a transcontinental failed because of Congressional disputes over slavery. With the secession of the Confederate states in , the modernizers in the Republican party took over Congress and wanted a line to link to California.
Private companies were to build and operate the line. Construction would be done by unskilled laborers who would live in temporary camps along the way.
Immigrants from China and Ireland did most of the construction work. Theodore Judah , the chief engineer of the Central Pacific surveyed the route from San Francisco east.
Judah's tireless lobbying efforts in Washington were largely responsible for the passage of the Pacific Railroad Act , which authorized construction of both the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific which built west from Omaha.
The line was completed in May Coast-to-coast passenger travel in 8 days now replaced wagon trains or sea voyages that took 6 to 10 months and cost much more.
The road was built with mortgages from New York, Boston, and London, backed by land grants. There were no federal cash subsidies, But there was a loan to the Central Pacific that was eventually repaid at six percent interest.
The federal government offered land-grants in a checkerboard pattern. The railroad sold every-other square, with the government opening its half to homesteaders.
Local and state governments also aided the financing. Most of the manual laborers on the Central Pacific were new arrivals from China.
He concludes that senior officials quickly realized the high degree of cleanliness and reliability of the Chinese. Ong explores whether or not the Chinese Railroad Workers were exploited by the railroad, with whites in better positions.
He finds the railroad set different wage rates for whites and Chinese and used the latter in the more menial and dangerous jobs, such as the handling and the pouring of nitroglycerin.
Building the railroad required six main activities: surveying the route, blasting a right of way, building tunnels and bridges, clearing and laying the roadbed, laying the ties and rails, and maintaining and supplying the crews with food and tools.
The work was highly physical, using horse-drawn plows and scrapers, and manual picks, axes, sledgehammers, and handcarts. A few steam-driven machines, such as shovels, were used.
For blasting, they used black powder. Six transcontinental railroads were built in the Gilded Age plus two in Canada ; they opened up the West to farmers and ranchers.
All but the Great Northern of James J. Hill relied on land grants. The financial stories were often complex. For example, the Northern Pacific received its major land grant in Financier Jay Cooke — was in charge until when he went bankrupt.
Federal courts, however, kept bankrupt railroads in operation. In Henry Villard — took over and finally completed the line to Seattle. But the line went bankrupt in the Panic of and Hill took it over.
He then merged several lines with financing from J. Morgan , but President Theodore Roosevelt broke them up in In the first year of operation, —70, , passengers made the long trip.
Settlers were encouraged with promotions to come West on free scouting trips to buy railroad land on easy terms spread over several years.
The railroads had "Immigration Bureaus" which advertised package low-cost deals including passage and land on easy terms for farmers in Germany and Scandinavia.
The prairies, they were promised, did not mean backbreaking toil because "settling on the prairie which is ready for the plow is different from plunging into a region covered with timber".
All manufacturers benefited from the lower costs of transportation and the much larger radius of business. White concludes with a mixed verdict.
The transcontinentals did open up the West to settlement, brought in many thousands of high-tech, highly paid workers and managers, created thousands of towns and cities, oriented the nation onto an east-west axis, and proved highly valuable for the nation as a whole.
On the other hand, too many were built, and they were built too far ahead of actual demand. The result was a bubble that left heavy losses to investors and led to poor management practices.
By contrast, as White notes, the lines in the Midwest and East supported by a very large population base, fostered farming, industry, and mining while generating steady profits and receiving few government benefits.
After the Civil War , many from the East Coast and Europe were lured west by reports from relatives and by extensive advertising campaigns promising "the Best Prairie Lands", "Low Prices", "Large Discounts For Cash", and "Better Terms Than Ever!
The new railroads provided the opportunity for migrants to go out and take a look, with special family tickets, the cost of which could be applied to land purchases offered by the railroads.
Farming the plains was indeed more difficult than back east. Water management was more critical, lightning fires were more prevalent, the weather was more extreme, rainfall was less predictable.
The fearful stayed home. The actual migrants looked beyond fears of the unknown. Conrad was later quoted in Cinefantastique about these films: "We all got along fine with each other when we did these, but I wasn't happy with them only because CBS imposed a lot of restrictions on us.
They never came up to the level of what we had done before. Robert Conrad starred as James West. Before The Wild Wild West , Conrad played private eye Tom Lopaka in ABC's Hawaiian Eye for four seasons, In November , Conrad was making the film Young Dillinger with Nick Adams, Victor Buono and John Ashley all of whom would later guest star on The Wild Wild West when his agent sent him to CBS to audition for the West role.
Conrad claimed to be the 17th actor to test for the part. Others tested included Robert Horton , Ray Danton and James "Skip" Ward. Conrad performed nearly all of his own stunts in the series.
Things started moving quicker when I took the jumps and the spills. We started meeting the budget. On January 24, , however, during filming of "The Night of the Fugitives" near the end of the third season, Conrad fell from a chandelier onto the stage floor and suffered a concussion.
I was in intensive care for 72 hours, with a six-inch lineal fracture of the skull and a high temporal concussion. Conrad spent weeks in the hospital and had a long convalescence slowed by constant dizziness.
The episode was eventually completed and aired early during the fourth season, with footage of the fall left in. Conrad later told Percy Shain of the Boston Globe , "I have the whole scene on film.
It's a constant reminder to be careful. It also bolstered my determination to make this my last year with the series.
Four seasons are enough of this sort of thing. Prior to The Wild Wild West, Ross Martin co-starred in the CBS series Mr.
Lucky from to , portraying Mr. Lucky's sidekick, Andamo. The series was created by Blake Edwards , who also cast Martin in his films Experiment in Terror and The Great Race Martin once called his role as Artemus Gordon "a show-off's showcase" because it allowed him to portray over different characters during the course of the series, and perform dozens of different dialects.
Martin sketched his ideas for his characterizations and worked with the makeup artists to execute the final look. Martin told Percy Shain of the Boston Globe , "In the three years of the show, I have run a wider gamut than even those acknowledged masters of disguise, Paul Muni and Lon Chaney.
Sometimes I feel like a one man repertory company. I think I've proven to myself and to the industry that I am the No. Martin broke his leg in a fourth-season episode, "The Night of the Avaricious Actuary," when he dropped a rifle, stepped on it, and his foot rolled over it.
Martin told Percy Shain of the Boston Globe, "In the scene where I was hurt, my stand-in tried to finish it. When the shell ejected from the rifle, it caught him in the eye and burned it.
We still haven't finished that scene. It will have to wait until I can move around again. A few weeks later, after completing "The Night of Fire and Brimstone", Martin suffered a heart attack on August 17, This was exactly two years after the show's creator, Michael Garrison, died.
Martin's character was replaced temporarily by other agents played by Charles Aidman four episodes , Alan Hale, Jr. Aidman said the producers had promised to rewrite the scripts for his new character, but this simply amounted to scratching out the name "Artemus Gordon" and penciling in "Jeremy Pike" his character's name.
Martin returned to work in mid-December and appeared in the final three episodes to be filmed. The show's most memorable recurring arch- villain was Dr.
Miguelito Quixote Loveless , a brilliant but petulant and megalomaniacal dwarf portrayed by Michael Dunn. Initially he had two companions: the huge Voltaire, played by Richard Kiel ; and the beautiful Antoinette, played by Dunn's real-life singing partner, Phoebe Dorin.
Voltaire disappeared without explanation after his third episode Richard Kiel returned in a different role in "The Night of the Simian Terror" , and Antoinette after her sixth.
According to the television film The Wild Wild West Revisited , Loveless eventually dies in from ulcers , brought on by the frustration of having his plans consistently foiled by West and Gordon his son, played by Paul Williams in the TV film, subsequently seeks revenge on the agents.
Though several actors appeared in different villainous roles, only one other character had a second encounter with West and Gordon: Count Manzeppi, played flamboyantly by Victor Buono Buono played a different villain in the pilot episode.
Manzeppi was a diabolical genius of "black magic" and crime, who—like Dr. Loveless—had an escape plan at the end. Buono also returned in More Wild Wild West as "Dr.
Henry Messenger", a parody of Henry Kissinger. Agnes Moorehead won an Emmy for her role as Emma Valentine in "The Night of The Vicious Valentine".
Other villains were portrayed by Leslie Nielsen , Sam Wanamaker , Martin Landau , Burgess Meredith , Boris Karloff , Ida Lupino , Carroll O'Connor , Ricardo Montalban , Robert Duvall , Ed Asner , and Harvey Korman.
While the show's writers created their fair share of villains, they often started with the nefarious, stylized and sometimes anachronistic inventions of these madmen or madwomen , and then wrote the episodes around these devices.
Henry Sharp, the series' story consultant, would sketch the preliminaries of the designs eccentrically numbering every sketch "fig.
CBS also approached Fleming about developing a Bond TV series. Fleming later contributed ideas to NBC's The Man From U. In Ratoff and Michael Garrison formed a production company to make a "Casino Royale" film, with Ratoff set to direct and 20th Century Fox set to distribute.
Production stalled when Ratoff and Garrison could not obtain financing. In , Hedda Hopper reported that Ratoff's film would star Peter Finch as Bond.
Feldman and director Howard Hawks were interested in making "Casino Royale" with Cary Grant as Bond. By then, Garrison and CBS had brought James Bond to television in a unique way.
The series' pilot episode, "The Night of the Inferno", was filmed in December Western novelist and screenwriter Clair Huffaker also worked on the concept.
It was his idea, for example, to have a secret agent named Jim West who would perform secret missions for President Ulysses S.
Ralston later sued Warner Bros. As indicated by Robert Conrad on his DVD commentary, the show went through several producers in its first season.
This was apparently due to conflicts between the network and Garrison, who had no experience producing for television and had trouble staying on budget.
At first, Ben Brady was named producer, but he was shifted to Rawhide , which had its own crisis when star Eric Fleming quit at the end of the season.
Rawhide lasted another thirteen episodes before it was cancelled by CBS. The network then hired Collier Young. Young also claimed to have added the wry second "Wild" to the series title, which had been simply "The Wild West" in its early stages of production.
Conrad was not sorry to see Young go: "I don't mind. All that guy did creatively was put the second 'wild' in the title.
CBS did the right thing. Young's replacement, Fred Freiberger , returned the series to its original concept. It was on his watch that writer John Kneubuhl , inspired by a magazine article about Michael Dunn , created the arch-villain Dr.
Miguelito Loveless. Phoebe Dorin, who played Loveless' assistant, Antoinette, recalled: "Michael Garrison came to see [our] nightclub act when he was in New York.
Garrison said to himself, 'Michael Dunn would make the most extraordinary villain. People have never seen anything like him before, and he's a fabulous little actor and he's funny as hell.
He came backstage and he told us who he was and he said he was going to do a television show called The Wild Wild West and we would be called.
We thought, 'Yeah, yeah, we've heard all that before. And that's how it started, because he saw the nightclub act.
The character became an immediate hit and Dunn was contracted to appear in four episodes per season. Because of health problems, however, Dunn only appeared in 10 episodes instead of After ten episodes 5—14 , Freiberger and executive producer Michael Garrison were, according to Variety, "unceremoniously dumped," reputedly due to a behind-the-scenes power struggle.
Garrison was replaced by Phillip Leacock, the executive producer of Gunsmoke , and Freiberger was supplanted by John Mantley, an associate producer on Gunsmoke.
The exchange stunned both cast and crew. He turned the matter over to his attorneys. Freiberger said, "I was fired for accomplishing what I had been hired to do.
I was hired to pull the show together when it was in chaos. Let's face it, the show is healthy. I think Fred Freiberger is totally correct in his concept of the show.
It's an administrative change, for what reason I don't know. Mantley produced seven 15—21 episodes then returned to his former position on Gunsmoke , and Gene L.
Coon took over as associate producer. By then, Garrison's conflict with CBS was resolved and he returned to the executive producer role. Coon left after six episodes 22—27 to write First to Fight , a Warner Bros.
Garrison produced the last episode of season one and the initial episodes of season two. Garrison's return was much to the relief of Ross Martin, who once revealed that he was so disenchanted during the first season that he tried to quit three times.
He explained that Garrison "saw the show as a Bond spoof laid in , and we all knew where we stood. Each new producer tried to put his stamp on the show and I had a terrible struggle.
I fought them line by line in every script. They knew they couldn't change the James West role very much, but it was open season on Artemus Gordon because they had never seen anything like him before.
On August 17, , however, during production of the new season's ninth episode, "The Night of the Ready-Made Corpse", Garrison fell down a flight of stairs in his home, fractured his skull, and died.
CBS assigned Bruce Lansbury , brother of actress Angela Lansbury , to produce the show for the remainder of its run. In the early s Lansbury had been in charge of daytime shows at CBS Television City in Hollywood, then vice president of programming in New York.
When he was tapped for The Wild Wild West, Lansbury was working with his twin brother, Edgar , producing legitimate theater on Broadway.
The first season's episodes were filmed in black and white, and they were darker in tone. Cinematographer Ted Voightlander was nominated for an Emmy Award for his work on one of these episodes, "The Night of the Howling Light.
The Wild Wild West was filmed at CBS Studio Center on Radford Avenue in Studio City in the San Fernando Valley.
The acre lot was formerly the home of Republic Studios , which specialized in low-budget films including Westerns starring Roy Rogers and Gene Autry and Saturday morning serials which The Wild Wild West appropriately echoed.
CBS had a wall-to-wall lease on the lot starting in May , and produced Gunsmoke and Rawhide there, as well as Gilligan's Island. Beginning in , MTM Enterprises headed by actress Mary Tyler Moore and her then-husband, Grant Tinker became the Studio Center's primary tenant.
In the mids the western streets and sets were replaced with new sound stages and urban facades, including the New York streets seen in Seinfeld.
In the lagoon set that was originally constructed for Gilligan's Island was paved over to create a parking lot. Among iconic locations used for filming were Bronson Canyon "Night of the Returning Dead" S02E05 and Vasquez Rocks "Night of the Cadre" S02E For the pilot episode, "The Night of the Inferno", the producers used Sierra Railroad No.
Footage of this train, with a 5 replacing the 3 on its number plate, was shot in Jamestown, California.
Best known for its role as the Hooterville Cannonball in the CBS series Petticoat Junction , Sierra No. It was built by the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works in Paterson, New Jersey.
When The Wild Wild West went into series production, however, an entirely different train was employed. The locomotive, a named the Inyo, was built in by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia.
The Inyo, as well as the express car and the passenger car, originally served the Virginia and Truckee Railroad in Nevada.
The Inyo appears in numerous films including High, Wide, and Handsome , Union Pacific , The Marx Brothers ' Go West , Meet Me in St.
Louis , , Red River , Disney 's The Great Locomotive Chase and McLintock! For The Wild Wild West , Inyo's original number plate was temporarily changed from No.
Footage of the Inyo in motion and idling was shot around Menifee, California , and reused in virtually every episode stock footage of Sierra No.
These trains were used only for exterior shots. The luxurious interior of the passenger car was constructed on Stage 6 at CBS Studio Center.
The train interior was also used in at least one episode of Gunsmoke "Death Train," aired January 27, , and in at least two episodes of The Big Valley "Last Train to the Fair," aired April 27, , and "Days of Wrath," aired January 8, All three series were filmed at CBS Studio Center and shared other exterior and interior sets.
Additionally, the train interior was used for an episode of Get Smart "The King Lives? After her run on The Wild Wild West , the Inyo participated in the Golden Spike Centennial at Promontory, Utah, in The following year it appeared as a replica of the Central Pacific's "Jupiter" locomotive at the Golden Spike National Historical Site.
The State of Nevada purchased the Inyo in ; it was restored to vintage, including a wider smoke stack and a new pilot cow catcher without a drop coupler.
The Inyo is still operational and displayed at the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Carson City. The express car No. Built in at the Mason Machine Works in Taunton, Massachusetts , it was later renamed The William Mason in honor of its manufacturer.
For its role as "The Wanderer" in the film, the engine was sent to the steam shops at the Strasburg Rail Road for restoration and repainting.
Both the Inyo and The William Mason appeared in the Disney film The Great Locomotive Chase The Wild Wild West featured numerous, often anachronistic, gadgets.
Some were recurring devices, such as West's sleeve gun or a breakaway derringer hidden in his left and right boot heels. Others appeared in only a single episode.
The main title theme was written by Richard Markowitz , who previously composed the theme for the TV series The Rebel. He was brought in after the producers rejected two attempts by film composer Dimitri Tiomkin.
In an interview by Susan Kesler for her book, The Wild Wild West: The Series included in the first season DVD boxed set, Markowitz recalled that the original Tiomkin theme "was very, kind of, traditional, it just seemed wrong.
That took it away from the serious kind of thing that Tiomkin was trying to do What I did essentially was write two themes: the rhythmic, contemporary theme, Fender bass and brushes, that vamp, for the cartoon effects and for West's getting himself out of trouble, and the heraldic western outdoor theme over that, so that the two worked together.
Session musicians who played on the theme were Tommy Morgan harmonica ; Bud Shank , Ronnie Lang , Plas Johnson , and Gene Cipriano woodwinds ; Vince DeRosa and Henry Sigismonti French Horns ; Uan Rasey , Ollie Mitchell , and Tony Terran trumpets ; Dick Nash , Lloyd Ulyate, Chauncey Welsch, Kenny Shroyer trombones.
Tommy Tedesco and Bill Pitman guitars ; Carol Kaye Fender bass ; Joe Porcaro brushes ; Gene Estes, Larry Bunker , and Emil Richards timpani, percussion.
Markowitz, however, was never credited for his theme in any episode; it is believed [ by whom? Markowitz did receive "music composed and conducted by" credits for episodes he'd scored such as "The Night of the Bars of Hell" and "The Night of the Raven" or where he supplied the majority of tracked-in cues for example in "The Night of the Grand Emir" and "The Night of the Gypsy Peril".
He finally received "theme by" credit on both of the TV movies, which were scored by Jeff Alexander rather than Markowitz few personnel from the series were involved with the TV movies.
The animated title sequence was another unique element of the series. Created by Michael Garrison Productions and DePatie-Freleng Enterprises, it was directed by Isadore "Friz" Freleng and animated by Ken Mundie,  who designed the titles for the film The Great Race and the TV series Secret Agent , Rawhide , and Death Valley Days.
The screen was divided into four corner panels abutting a narrow central panel that contained a cartoon "hero". In the three seasons shot in color, the overall backdrop was an abstracted wash of the flag of the United States , with the upper left panel colored blue and the others containing horizontal red stripes.
This teaser part of the show was incorporated into The History Channel 's Wild West Tech —5. Each episode had four acts.
At the end of each act, the scene, usually a cliffhanger moment, would freeze, and a sketch or photograph of the scene faded in to replace the cartoon art in one of the four corner panels.
The style of freeze-frame art changed over the course of the series. In all first-season episodes other than the pilot, the panels were live-action stills made to evoke 19th-century engravings.
In season two the first in color the scenes dissolved to tinted stills; from "The Night of the Flying Pie Plate" on, however, the panels were home to Warhol -like serigraphs of the freeze-frames.
The end credits were displayed over each episode's unique mosaic of scenes. In the final season, however, a generic design was used under the end credits.
Curiously, in this design, the bank robber is unconscious, the cardsharp has no card and the lady is on the ground, but the sixshooter in the upper left-hand panel has returned.
The freeze-frame graphics were shot at a facility called Format Animation. During the first season, the series title "The Wild Wild West" was set in the font Barnum,  which resembles the newer font P.
In subsequent seasons, the title appeared in a hand-drawn version of the font Dolphin which resembles newer fonts called Zebrawood, Circus, and Rodeo Clown.
Robert Conrad's name was also set in this font. Ross Martin's name was set in the font Bracelet which resembles newer fonts named Tuscan Ornate and Romantiques.
All episode titles, writer and director credits, guest cast and crew credits were set in Barnum. During commercial breaks, the title "The Wild Wild West" also appeared in Barnum.
The series is generally set during the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant from —77; occasional episodes indicate a more precise date:.
Some episodes were considered violent for their time and that, rather than low ratings ultimately was the series' downfall. In addition to gunplay, there were usually two fight sequences per episode.
These were choreographed by Whitey Hughes and Conrad, and performed by Conrad and a stock company of stuntmen , including Red West , Dick Cangey and Bob Herron who doubled for Ross Martin.
After Conrad suffered a concussion falling from a chandelier in "The Night of the Fugitives," the network insisted that he defer to a stunt double.
His chair on the set was newly inscribed: "Robert Conrad, ex-stuntman, retired by CBS, Jan. Often, George would start a stunt, such as a high fall or a dive through a window, then land behind boxes or off camera where Conrad was hidden and waiting to seamlessly complete the action.
This common stunt technique, known by filmmakers as "The Texas Switch",  was often used by Ross Martin and his double, Bob Herron.
It was hazardous work. Hughes recalled, "We had a lot of crashes. We used to say, 'Roll the cameras and call the ambulances!
Robert Conrad: 6-inch fracture of the skull, high temporal concussion, partial paralysis. Ross Martin: broken leg. A broken skull for Red West.
Broken leg for Jimmy George. Broken arm for Jack Skelly. And Michael Dunn: head injury and a spinal sprain.
He did his own stunts. And on and on. As a result of the April assassination of Martin Luther King and the June assassination of Robert F.
Kennedy , President Johnson created the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. One of the questions it tackled was if violence on television, including graphic news coverage of the Vietnam War, was a contributing factor to violence in American society.
The television networks, anticipating these allegations, moved to curtail violence on their entertainment programs before the September start of the television season.
However, despite a CBS mandate to tone down the mayhem, "The Night of the Egyptian Queen" aired November 15, contains perhaps the series' most ferocious barroom brawl.
A later memo attached to the shooting script of "The Night of Miguelito's Revenge" aired December 13, reads: "Note to Directors: The producer respectfully asks that no violent acts be shot which are not depicted in the script or discussed beforehand.
Most particularly stay away from gratuitous ad-libs, such as slaps, pointing of firearms or other weapons at characters especially in close quarters , kicks and the use of furniture and other objects in fight scenes.
James West rarely wears a gun in these episodes, and rather than the usual fisticuffs, fight sequences involved tossing, tackling or body blocking the villains.
In December , executives from ABC, CBS and NBC appeared before the President's Commission. The most caustic of the commissioners, Rep.
Hale Boggs D-Louisiana , decried what he called "the Saturday morning theme of children's cartoon shows" that permit "the good guy to do anything in the name of justice.
Three months later, in March , Sen. John O. Pastore D-Rhode Island called the same network presidents before his Senate communications subcommittee for a public scolding on the same subject.
Congress's concern was shared by the public: in a nationwide poll, Additionally, the National Association for Better Broadcasting NABB , in a report eventually issued in November , rated The Wild Wild West "as one of the most violent series on television.However, despite a CBS mandate to tone down the mayhem, "The Night of the Egyptian Kostenloses Puzzle aired November 15, contains perhaps the series' most ferocious barroom Ergebnisse Nach ElfmeterschieГџen. Official Sites. In rural areas Joaquin MurietaJack PowersAugustine Chacon and other bandits terrorized the state.